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Breast Surgery

Wednesday, 2 August 2017

Hyperchloremia Is Associated With Acute Kidney Injury in Patients With Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

Hyperchloremia Is Associated With Acute Kidney Injury in Patients With Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

Sadan, O et al
Critical Care Medicine: August 2017 - Volume 45 - Issue 8 - p 1382–1388


Objective: To assess the prevalence of acute kidney injury in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage patients. Design: Retrospective analysis of all subarachnoid hemorrhage admissions. Settings: Neurocritical care unit. Patients: All patients with a diagnosis of subarachnoid hemorrhage between 2009 and 2014. Interventions: None. 
Measurements and Main Results: Of 1,267 patients included in this cohort, 16.7% developed acute kidney injury, as defined by Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcome criteria (changes in creatinine only). Compared to patients without acute kidney injury, patients with acute kidney injury had a higher prevalence of diabetes mellitus (21.2% vs 9.8%; p < 0.001) and hypertension (70.3% vs 50.5%; p < 0.001) and presented with higher admission creatinine concentrations (1.21 ± 0.09 vs 0.81 ± 0.01 mg/dL [mean ± SD], respectively; p < 0.001). Patients with acute kidney injury also had higher mean serum chloride and sodium concentrations during their ICU stay (113.4 ± 0.6 vs 107.1 ± 0.2 mmol/L and 143.3 ± 0.4 vs 138.8 ± 0.1 mmol/L, respectively; p < 0.001 for both), but similar chloride exposure. The mortality rate was also significantly higher in patients with acute kidney injury (28.3% vs 6.1% in the non-acute kidney injury group [p < 0.001]). Logistic regression analysis revealed that only male gender (odds ratio, 1.82; 95% CI, 1.28–2.59), hypertension (odds ratio, 1.64; 95% CI, 1.11–2.43), diabetes mellitus (odds ratio, 1.88; 95% CI, 1.19–2.99), abnormal baseline creatinine (odds ratio, 2.48; 95% CI, 1.59–3.88), and increase in mean serum chloride concentration (per 10 mmol/L; odds ratio, 7.39; 95% CI, 3.44–18.23), but not sodium, were associated with development of acute kidney injury. Kidney recovery was noted in 78.8% of the cases. Recovery reduced mortality compared to non-recovering subgroup (18.6% and 64.4%, respectively; p < 0.001). 
Conclusions: Critically ill patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage show a strong association between hyperchloremia and acute kidney injury as well as acute kidney injury and mortality.

Nonlinear Imputation of PaO2/FIO2 From SpO2/FIO2 Among Mechanically Ventilated Patients in the ICU: A Prospective, Observational Study

Nonlinear Imputation of PaO2/FIO2 From SpO2/FIO2 Among Mechanically Ventilated Patients in the ICU: A Prospective, Observational Study

Brown, S et al
Critical Care Medicine: August 2017 - Volume 45 - Issue 8 - p 1317–1324

Objectives: In the contemporary ICU, mechanically ventilated patients may not have arterial blood gas measurements available at relevant timepoints. Severity criteria often depend on arterial blood gas results. Retrospective studies suggest that nonlinear imputation of PaO2/FIO2 from SpO2/FIO2 is accurate, but this has not been established prospectively among mechanically ventilated ICU patients. The objective was to validate the superiority of nonlinear imputation of PaO2/FIO2 among mechanically ventilated patients and understand what factors influence the accuracy of imputation. 
Design: Simultaneous SpO2, oximeter characteristics, receipt of vasopressors, and skin pigmentation were recorded at the time of a clinical arterial blood gas. Acute respiratory distress syndrome criteria were recorded. For each imputation method, we calculated both imputation error and the area under the curve for patients meeting criteria for acute respiratory distress syndrome (PaO2/FIO2 ≤ 300) and moderate-severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (PaO2/FIO2 ≤ 150). Setting: Nine hospitals within the Prevention and Early Treatment of Acute Lung Injury network. Patients: We prospectively enrolled 703 mechanically ventilated patients admitted to the emergency departments or ICUs of participating study hospitals. Interventions: None. Measurements and Main Results: We studied 1,034 arterial blood gases from 703 patients; 650 arterial blood gases were associated with SpO2 less than or equal to 96%. Nonlinear imputation had consistently lower error than other techniques. Among all patients, nonlinear had a lower error (p < 0.001) and higher (p < 0.001) area under the curve (0.87; 95% CI, 0.85–0.90) for PaO2/FIO2 less than or equal to 300 than linear/log-linear (0.80; 95% CI, 0.76–0.83) imputation. All imputation methods better identified moderate-severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (PaO2/FIO2 ≤ 150); nonlinear imputation remained superior (p < 0.001). For PaO2/FIO2 less than or equal to 150, the sensitivity and specificity for nonlinear imputation were 0.87 (95% CI, 0.83–0.90) and 0.91 (95% CI, 0.88–0.93), respectively. Skin pigmentation and receipt of vasopressors were not associated with imputation accuracy. 
Conclusions: In mechanically ventilated patients, nonlinear imputation of PaO2/FIO2 from SpO2/FIO2 seems accurate, especially for moderate-severe hypoxemia. Linear and log-linear imputations cannot be recommended.

Key factors for hand hygiene promotion in intensive care units

Key factors for hand hygiene promotion in intensive care units

De Wandel D et al
Critical Care Medicine: Article in Press

Hand hygiene remains a cornerstone in the fight against healthcare-associated infections and multidrug resistance (Blot, 2008). Hand hygiene behaviour is deep-rooted and difficult to change. According to a recently published Intensive & Critical Care Nursing article by Battistella et al. (2017), professional hand hygiene behaviour in intensive care settings is influenced by habits of social handwashing in everyday life. Therefore, they plead for the creation of specific professional hand hygiene habits (washing hands should become ‘a routine inside a habit’).

Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation for Acute Decompensated Heart Failure

Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation for Acute Decompensated Heart Failure

Dangers, L et al
Critical Care Medicine: August 2017 - Volume 45 - Issue 8 - p 1359–1366

Objective: Long-term outcomes of patients treated with venoarterial-extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for acute decompensated heart failure (i.e., cardiogenic shock complicating chronic cardiomyopathy) have not yet been reported. This study was undertaken to describe their outcomes and determine mortality-associated factors. Design: Retrospective analysis of data prospectively collected. Setting: Twenty-six–bed tertiary hospital ICU. Patients: One hundred five patients implanted with venoarterial-extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for acute decompensated heart failure. Intervention: None. 
Measurements and Main Results: From March 2007 to January 2015, 105 patients were implanted with venoarterial-extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for acute decompensated heart failure in our ICU (67% of them had an intraaortic balloon pump to unload the left ventricle). Their 1-year survival rate was 42%; most of the survivors were transplanted either directly or after switching to central bilateral centrifugal pump, ventricular-assist device, or total artificial heart. Most deaths occurred early after multiple organ failure. Multivariable analyses retained (odds ratio [95% CI]) pre–extracorporeal membrane oxygenation Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score of more than 11 (3.3 [1.3–8.3]), idiopathic cardiomyopathy (0.4 [0.2–1]), cardiac disease duration greater than 2 years pre–extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (2.8 [1.2–6.9]), and pre–extracorporeal membrane oxygenation blood lactate greater than 4 mmol/L (2.6 [1.03–6.4]) as independent predictors of 1-year mortality. Only 17% of patients with pre–extracorporeal membrane oxygenation Sequential Organ Failure Assessment scores of 14 or more survived, whereas 52% of those with scores less than 7 and 60% of those with scores 7 or more and less than 11 were alive 1 year later. 
Conclusions: Among this selected cohort of 105 patients implanted with venoarterial-extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for acute decompensated heart failure, 1-year survival was 42%, but better for patients with pre–extracorporeal membrane oxygenation Sequential Organ Failure Assessment scores of less than 11. Venoarterial-extracorporeal membrane oxygenation should be considered for patients with acute decompensated heart failure, but timing of implantation is crucial.

Should All Massively Transfused Patients Be Treated Equally? An Analysis of Massive Transfusion Ratios in the Nontrauma Setting

Should All Massively Transfused Patients Be Treated Equally? An Analysis of Massive Transfusion Ratios in the Nontrauma Setting

Etchill, E et al
Critical Care Medicine: August 2017 - Volume 45 - Issue 8 - Issue 8 - p 1311–1316

Objectives: Although balanced resuscitation has become integrated into massive transfusion practice, there is a paucity of evidence supporting the delivery of high ratios of plasma and platelet to RBCs in the nontrauma setting. This study investigated the administration of blood component ratios in the massively transfused nontrauma demographic. 
Design: Retrospective analysis of a prospective, observational cohort of massively bleeding patients. Setting: Surgical and critically ill patients at a tertiary medical center between 2011 and 2015. Patients: Massively transfused nontrauma patients. Interventions: Patients receiving plasma, platelet, and RBC transfusions were categorized into high and low ratio groups and analyzed for differences in characteristics and clinical outcomes. Measurements and Main Results: The primary outcome was 30-day mortality. Secondary outcomes included 48-hour mortality, hospital length of stay, ICU length of stay, and ventilator-free days. Among 601 massively transfused nontrauma patients, cardiothoracic surgery and gastrointestinal or hepato-pancreatico-biliary bleeds were the most common indications for massive transfusion. Higher fresh frozen plasma ratios (> 1:2) were not associated with increased 30-day mortality. A high platelets-to-packed RBCs ratio (> 1:2) was associated with decreased 48-hour mortality (10.5% vs 19.3%; p = 0.032), but not 30-day mortality. Fresh frozen plasma-to-packed RBCs and platelets-to-packed RBCs ratios were not associated with 30-day mortality hazard ratios after controlling for baseline characteristics and disease severity. 
Conclusions: The benefits of higher ratios of fresh frozen plasma-to-packed RBCs and platelets-to-packed RBCs described in trials of trauma patients were not observed in this analysis of a nontrauma, massively transfused population. These data suggest that greater than 1:2 ratio transfusion in the setting of massive hemorrhage may not be appropriate for all patients, and that further research to guide appropriate resuscitation strategies in nontrauma patients is warranted.

Antibiotic Therapy in Comatose Mechanically Ventilated Patients Following Aspiration: Differentiating Pneumonia From Pneumonitis

Antibiotic Therapy in Comatose Mechanically Ventilated Patients Following Aspiration: Differentiating Pneumonia From Pneumonitis

Lascarrou, JB et al
Critical Care Medicine: August 2017 - Volume 45 - Issue 8 - p 1268–1275

Objectives: To determine the proportion of patients with documented bacterial aspiration pneumonia among comatose ICU patients with symptoms suggesting either bacterial aspiration pneumonia or non-bacterial aspiration pneumonitis. Design: Prospective observational study. Setting: University-affiliated 30-bed ICU. Patients: Prospective cohort of 250 patients admitted to the ICU with coma (Glasgow Coma Scale score ≤ 8) and treated with invasive mechanical ventilation. Interventions: None. Measurements and Main Results: The primary outcome was the proportion of patients with microbiologically documented bacterial aspiration pneumonia. Patients meeting predefined criteria for aspiration syndrome routinely underwent telescopic plugged catheter sampling during bronchoscopy before starting probabilistic antibiotic treatment. When cultures were negative, the antibiotic treatment was stopped. Of 250 included patients, 98 (39.2%) had aspiration syndrome, including 92 before mechanical ventilation discontinuation. Telescopic plugged catheter in these 92 patients showed bacterial aspiration pneumonia in 43 patients (46.7%). Among the remaining 49 patients, 16 continued to receive antibiotics, usually for infections other than pneumonia; of the 33 patients whose antibiotics were discontinued, only two subsequently showed signs of lung infection. In the six patients with aspiration syndrome after mechanical ventilation, and therefore without telescopic plugged catheter, antibiotic treatment was continued for 7 days. Mechanical ventilation duration, ICU length of stay, and mortality did not differ between the 43 patients with bacterial aspiration pneumonia and the 49 patients with non-bacterial aspiration pneumonitis. The 152 patients without aspiration syndrome did not receive antibiotics. Conclusions: Among comatose patients receiving mechanical ventilation, those without clinical, laboratory, or radiologic evidence of bacterial aspiration pneumonia did not require antibiotics. In those with suspected bacterial aspiration pneumonia, stopping empirical antibiotic therapy when routine telescopic plugged catheter sampling recovered no microorganisms was nearly always effective. This strategy may be a valid alternative to routine full-course antibiotic therapy. Only half the patients with suspected bacterial aspiration pneumonia had this diagnosis confirmed by telescopic plugged catheter sampling.

Repeated Critical Illness and Unplanned Readmissions Within 1 Year to PICUs

Repeated Critical Illness and Unplanned Readmissions Within 1 Year to PICUs

Edwards, J et al
Critical Care Medicine: August 2017 - Volume 45 - Issue 8 - p 1276–1284

Objectives: To determine the occurrence rate of unplanned readmissions to PICUs within 1 year and examine risk factors associated with repeated readmission. 
Design: Retrospective cohort analysis. Setting: Seventy-six North American PICUs that participated in the Virtual Pediatric Systems, LLC (VPS, LLC, Los Angeles, CA). Patients: Ninety-three thousand three hundred seventy-nine PICU patients discharged between 2009 and 2010. Interventions: None. 
Measurements and Main Results: Index admissions and unplanned readmissions were characterized and their outcomes compared. Time-to-event analyses were performed to examine factors associated with readmission within 1 year. Eleven percent (10,233) of patients had 15,625 unplanned readmissions within 1 year to the same PICU; 3.4% had two or more readmissions. Readmissions had significantly higher PICU mortality and longer PICU length of stay, compared with index admissions (4.0% vs 2.5% and 2.5 vs 1.6 d; all p < 0.001). Median time to readmission was 30 days for all readmissions, 3.5 days for readmissions during the same hospitalization, and 66 days for different hospitalizations. Having more complex chronic conditions was associated with earlier readmission (adjusted hazard ratio, 2.9 for one complex chronic condition; hazard ratio, 4.8 for two complex chronic conditions; hazard ratio, 9.6 for three or more complex chronic conditions; all p < 0.001 compared no complex chronic condition). Most specific complex chronic condition conferred a greater risk of readmission, and some had considerably higher risk than others. 
Conclusions: Unplanned readmissions occurred in a sizable minority of PICU patients. Patients with complex chronic conditions and particular conditions were at much higher risk for readmission.

Disassociating Lung Mechanics and Oxygenation in Pediatric Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

Disassociating Lung Mechanics and Oxygenation in Pediatric Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

Yehya, N, Thomas, N J. 
Critical Care Medicine: July 2017 - Volume 45 - Issue 7 - p 1232–1239

Objectives: Both oxygenation and peak inspiratory pressure are associated with mortality in pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome. Since oxygenation and respiratory mechanics are linked, it is difficult to identify which variables, pressure or oxygenation, are independently associated with outcome. We aimed to determine whether respiratory mechanics (peak inspiratory pressure, positive end-expiratory pressure, ΔP [PIP minus PEEP], tidal volume, dynamic compliance [Cdyn]) or oxygenation (PaO2/FIO2) was associated with mortality. Design: Prospective, observational, cohort study. Setting: University affiliated PICU. Patients: Mechanically ventilated children with acute respiratory distress syndrome (Berlin). Interventions: None. Measurements and Main Results: Peak inspiratory pressure, positive end-expiratory pressure, ΔP, tidal volume, Cdyn, and PaO2/FIO2 were collected at acute respiratory distress syndrome onset and at 24 hours in 352 children between 2011 and 2016. At acute respiratory distress syndrome onset, neither mechanical variables nor PaO2/FIO2 were associated with mortality. At 24 hours, peak inspiratory pressure, positive end-expiratory pressure, ΔP were higher, and Cdyn and PaO2/FIO2 lower, in nonsurvivors. In multivariable logistic regression, PaO2/FIO2 at 24 hours and ΔPaO2/FIO2 (change in PaO2/FIO2 over the first 24 hr) were associated with mortality, whereas pressure variables were not. Both oxygenation and pressure variables were associated with duration of ventilation in multivariable competing risk regression. Conclusions: Improvements in oxygenation, but not in respiratory mechanics, were associated with lower mortality in pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome. Future trials of mechanical ventilation in children should focus on oxygenation (higher PaO2/FIO2) rather than lower peak inspiratory pressure or ΔP, as oxygenation was more consistently associated with outcome.

The Use of Bowel Protocols in Critically Ill Adult Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

The Use of Bowel Protocols in Critically Ill Adult Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Oczkowski, Simon J. W. et al
Critical Care Medicine: July 2017 - Volume 45 - Issue 7 - p e718–e726

Objective: Constipation is common among critically ill patients and has been associated with adverse patient outcomes. Many ICUs have developed bowel protocols to treat constipation; however, their effect on clinical outcomes remains uncertain. We conducted a systematic review to determine the impact of bowel protocols in critically ill adults. 
Data Sources: We searched MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, CENTRAL, ISRCTN, ClinicalTrials.gov, and conference abstracts until January 2016. Study Selection: Two authors independently screened titles and abstracts for randomized controlled trials comparing bowel protocols to control (placebo, no protocol, or usual care) in critically ill adults. Data Extraction: Two authors independently, and in duplicate, extracted study characteristics, outcomes, assessed risk of bias, and appraised the quality of evidence using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation approach. 
Data Synthesis: We retrieved 4,520 individual articles, and excluded 4,332 articles during title and abstract screening and 181 articles during full-text screening. Four trials, including 534 patients, were eligible for analysis. The use of a bowel protocol was associated with a trend toward a reduction in constipation (risk ratio, 0.50 [95% CI, 0.25–1.01]; p = 0.05; low-quality evidence); no reduction in tolerance of enteral feeds (risk ratio, 0.94 [95% CI, 0.62–1.42]; p = 0.77; low-quality evidence), and no change in the duration of mechanical ventilation (mean difference, 0.01 d [95% CI, –2.67 to 2.69 d]; low-quality evidence). Conclusions: Large, rigorous, randomized control trials are needed to determine whether bowel protocols impact patient-important outcomes in critically ill adults.

Tuesday, 27 June 2017

Sepsis-Associated 30-Day Risk-Standardized Readmissions: Analysis of a Nationwide Medicare Sample

Sepsis-Associated 30-Day Risk-Standardized Readmissions: Analysis of a Nationwide Medicare Sample
Norman, B et al
Critical Care Medicine: July 2017 - Volume 45 - Issue 7 - p 1130–1137

Objectives: To determine national readmission rates among sepsis survivors, variations in rates between hospitals, and determine whether measures of quality correlate with performance on sepsis readmissions. Design: Cross-sectional study of sepsis readmissions between 2008 and 2011 in the Medicare fee-for-service database. Setting: Acute care, Medicare participating hospitals from 2008 to 2011. Patients: Septic patients as identified by International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision codes using the Angus method. Interventions: None. Measurements and Main Results: We generated hospital-level, risk-standardized, 30-day readmission rates among survivors of sepsis and compared rates across region, ownership, teaching status, sepsis volume, hospital size, and proportion of underserved patients. We examined the relationship between risk-standardized readmission rates and hospital-level composite measures of quality and mortality. From 633,407 hospitalizations among 3,315 hospitals from 2008 to 2011, median risk-standardized readmission rates was 28.7% (interquartile range, 26.1–31.9). There were differences in risk-standardized readmission rates by region (Northeast, 30.4%; South, 29.6%; Midwest, 28.8%; and West, 27.7%; p < 0.001), teaching versus nonteaching status (31.1% vs 29.0%; p < 0.001), and hospitals serving the highest proportion of underserved patients (30.6% vs 28.7%; p < 0.001). The best performing hospitals on a composite quality measure had highest risk-standardized readmission rates compared with the lowest (32.0% vs 27.5%; p < 0.001). Risk-standardized readmission rates was lower in the highest mortality hospitals compared with those in the lowest (28.7% vs 30.7%; p < 0.001). Conclusions: One third of sepsis survivors were readmitted and wide variation exists between hospitals. Several demographic and structural factors are associated with this variation. Measures of higher quality in-hospital care were correlated with higher readmission rates. Several potential explanations are possible including poor risk standardization, more research is needed.

Noninvasive Ventilation in Acute Hypoxemic Nonhypercapnic Respiratory Failure: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Noninvasive Ventilation in Acute Hypoxemic Nonhypercapnic Respiratory Failure: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Xu, X et al

Critical Care Medicine: July 2017 - Volume 45 - Issue 7 - p e727–e733

Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of noninvasive ventilation in patients with acute hypoxemic nonhypercapnic respiratory failure unrelated to exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and cardiogenic pulmonary edema. Data Sources: PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane library, Web of Science, and bibliographies of articles were retrieved inception until June 2016. Study Selection: Randomized controlled trials comparing application of noninvasive ventilation with standard oxygen therapy in adults with acute hypoxemic nonhypercapnic respiratory failure were included. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbation and cardiogenic pulmonary edema patients were excluded. The primary outcome was intubation rate; ICU mortality and hospital mortality were secondary outcomes. 
Data Extraction: Demographic variables, noninvasive ventilation application, and outcomes were retrieved. Internal validity was assessed using the risk of bias tool. The strength of evidence was assessed using Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation methodology. 
Data Synthesis: Eleven studies (1,480 patients) met the inclusion criteria and were analyzed by using a random effects model. Compared with standard oxygen therapy, the pooled effect showed that noninvasive ventilation significantly reduced intubation rate with a summary risk ratio of 0.59 (95% CI, 0.44–0.79; p = 0.0004). Furthermore, hospital mortality was also significantly reduced (risk ratio, 0.46; 95% CI, 0.24–0.87; p = 0.02). Subgroup meta-analysis showed that the application of bilevel positive support ventilation (bilevel positive airway pressure) was associated with a reduction in ICU mortality (p = 0.007). Helmet noninvasive ventilation could reduce hospital mortality (p = 0.0004), whereas face/nasal mask noninvasive ventilation could not. 
Conclusions: Noninvasive ventilation decreased endotracheal intubation rates and hospital mortality in acute hypoxemia nonhypercapnic respiratory failure excluding chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbation and cardiogenic pulmonary edema patients. There is no sufficient scientific evidence to recommend bilevel positive airway pressure or helmet due to the limited number of trials available. Large rigorous randomized trials are needed to answer these questions definitely.

The cardio-respiratory effects of intra-abdominal hypertension: Considerations for critical care nursing practice

The cardio-respiratory effects of intra-abdominal hypertension: Considerations for critical care nursing practice

Christensen M, Craft J
Intensive and Critical Care Nursing : Article in Press

Intra-abdominal hypertension can be classified as either primary or secondary. Primary intra-abdominal hypertension is often associated through trauma or diseases of the abdominopelvic region such as pancreatitis or abdominal surgery, while secondary intra-abdominal hypertension is the result of extra-abdominal causes such as sepsis or burns. The critically ill patient offers some challenges in monitoring in particular secondaryintra-abdominal hypertension because of the effects of fluid resuscitation, the use of inotropes and positive pressure ventilation. Recent work suggests that intensive care unit nurses are often unaware of the secondary effects of intra-abdominal pressure and therefore this is not monitored effectively. Therefore being aware of the cardio-respiratory effects may alert theintensive care nurse nurse to the development of intra-abdominal hypertension. The aim of this paper is to discuss the pathophysiology associated with the cardio-respiratory effects seen with intra-abdominal hypertension in the critically ill. In particular it will discuss how intra-abdominal hypertension can inadvertently be overlooked because of the low flow states that it produces which could be misconstrued as something else. It will also discuss how intra-abdominal hypertension impedes ventilation and respiratory mechanics which can often result in a non-cardiogenic pulmonary oedema. To close, the paper will offer some implications for critical care nursing practice.

Association Between Hospital Case Volume of Sepsis, Adherence to Evidence-Based Processes of Care and Patient Outcomes

Association Between Hospital Case Volume of Sepsis, Adherence to Evidence-Based Processes of Care and Patient Outcomes

Fawzy, A, Walkey, AJ
Critical Care Medicine: June 2017 - Volume 45 - Issue 6 - p 980–988

Objectives: We sought to explore potential mechanisms underlying hospital sepsis case volume-mortality associations by investigating implementation of evidence-based processes of care. Design: Retrospective cohort study. We determined associations of sepsis case volume with three evidence-based processes of care (lactate measurement during first hospital day, norepinephrine as first vasopressor, and avoidance of starch-based colloids) and assessed their role in mediation of case volume-mortality associations. Setting: Enhanced administrative data (Premier, Charlotte, NC) from 534 U.S. hospitals. Subjects: A total of 287,914 adult patients with sepsis present at admission between July 2010 and December 2012 of whom 58,045 received a vasopressor for septic shock during the first 2 days of hospitalization. Interventions: None. 
Measurements and Main Results: Among patients with sepsis, 1.9% received starch, and among patients with septic shock, 68.3% had lactate measured and 64% received norepinephrine as initial vasopressor. Patients at hospitals with the highest case volume were more likely to have lactate measured (adjusted odds ratio quartile 4 vs quartile 1, 2.8; 95% CI, 2.1–3.7) and receive norepinephrine as initial vasopressor (adjusted odds ratio quartile 4 vs quartile 1, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.6–2.7). Case volume was not associated with avoidance of starch products (adjusted odds ratio quartile 4 vs quartile 1, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.45–1.2). Adherence to evidence-based care was associated with lower hospital mortality (adjusted odds ratio, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.70–0.94) but did not strongly mediate case volume-mortality associations (point estimate change ≤ 2%). 
Conclusions: In a large cohort of U.S. patients with sepsis, select evidence-based processes of care were more likely implemented at high-volume hospitals but did not strongly mediate case volume-mortality associations. Considering processes and case volume when regionalizing sepsis care may maximize patient outcomes.


Quantifying the Mortality Impact of Do-Not-Resuscitate Orders in the ICU

Quantifying the Mortality Impact of Do-Not-Resuscitate Orders in the ICU

Fuchs, L et al
Critical Care Medicine: June 2017 - Volume 45 - Issue 6 - p 1019–1027

Objectives: We quantified the 28-day mortality effect of preexisting do-not-resuscitate orders in ICUs. Design: Longitudinal, retrospective study of patients admitted to five ICUs at a tertiary university medical center (Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, BIDMC, Boston, MA) between 2001 and 2008. Intervention: None. Patients: Two cohorts were defined: patients with do not resuscitate advance directives on day 1 of ICU admission and a control group comprising patients with no limitations of level of care on ICU day 1 (full code). 
Measurements and Main Results: The primary outcome was mortality at 28 days after ICU admission. Of 19,007 ICU patients, 1,239 patients (6.5%) had a do-not-resuscitate order on the first day of ICU admission and survived 48 hours in the ICU. We matched those do-not-resuscitate patients with 2,402 patients with full-code status. Twenty-eight day and 1-year mortality were both significantly higher in the do-not-resuscitate group (33.9% vs 18.4% and 60.7% vs 40.2%; p < 0.001, respectively). 
Conclusion: Do-not-resuscitate status is an independent risk factor for ICU mortality. This may reflect severity of illness not captured by other clinical factors, but the perceptions of the treating team related to do-not-resuscitate status could also be causally responsible for increased mortality in patients with do-not-resuscitate status.

Nursing staff’s experiences of working in an evidence-based designed ICU patient room—An interview study

Nursing staff’s experiences of working in an evidence-based designed ICU patient room—An interview study

Sundberg F et al
Intensive and Critical Care Nursing : Article in Press

It has been known for centuries that environment in healthcare has an impact, but despite this, environment has been overshadowed by technological and medical progress, especially in intensive care. Evidence-based design is a concept concerning integrating knowledge from various research disciplines and its application to healing environments.
Objective
The aim was to explore the experiences of nursing staff of working in an evidence-based designed ICU patient room.
Method
Interviews were carried out with eight critical care nurses and five assistant nurses and then subjected to qualitative content analysis.
Findings
The experience of working in an evidence-based designed intensive care unit patient room was that the room stimulates alertness and promotes wellbeing in the nursing staff, fostering their caring activities but also that the interior design of the medical and technical equipment challenges nursing actions.
Conclusions

The room explored in this study had been rebuilt in order to create and evaluate a healing environment. This study showed that the new environment had a great impact on the caring staffs’ wellbeing and their caring behaviour. At a time when turnover in nurses is high and sick leave is increasing, these findings show the importance of interior design of intensive care units.